We call everything having mass and volume matter, such as air, table, water...Matters having shape are called object. We now learn changes in the matters. There are two types of changes in the structure of matter, chemical change and physical change.
a) Physical Change:
In this type of changes, there are no permanent changes in the structure of matters. Physical appearance of the matters are changed. In physical changes, matters can return its old structure, no new matter is produced, and chemical structure of the matters does not change. For example, melting of ice, breaking glass.
b) Chemical Changes:
In this type of changes, both physical appearance and structure of matters are changed. During chemical changes, new matter is produced, chemical structure of matter is changed, matter can not turn its old structure, energy spent on this change is larger than the energy spent on physical changes. For example, burning paper, rusting of an iron, photosynthesis.
Properties of Matter
We can examine properties of matters under two titles; physical properties and chemical properties.
a) Physical Properties of Matters:
Physical properties can be measured without changing the structure of matters. Color, melting, freezing, boiling points, density, specific heat capacity of matters are examples of physical properties of matter. We will explain them in this unit.
b) Chemical properties of Matters:
Chemical changes in the matter shows us chemical properties of matter. For example, rusting of iron is chemical properties of matter.
Common Properties of Matters and Distinguishing Properties of Matters
a) Common properties of matters are, mass, volume, inertia and particle structure. Distinguishing properties can be explained under two topic, properties depends on quantity of matter and distinguishing properties.For example, mass or volume changes with quantity of matter.
b) Distinguishing Properties of Matters: These properties do not change with the quantity of matters. We use them in classifying matters under same temperature and constant pressure. Distinguishing properties of matters also differs from phases of matters. Table given below shows these properties for three phases of matter.
Example: Which one of the followings are distinguishing property of matters.
Volume is common property of matters but density and solubility are distinguishing property of matters. II. and III.
Some Physical Properties of Matter
1) Density: Density is the mass of unit volume. It is represented by letter "d". We find density with following formula;
d=m/V where m is the mass and V is the volume of matters.
Unit of density is g/cm3
Example: If we increase the quantity of matter X, under constant temperature, which one of the following graphs become true. (d=density, m=mass, V=volume, t=temperature)
When we increase mass of matter then, volume of it also increases and density stays constant. Thus, first and second graphs are true. Since temperature of X is constant third graph becomes false.
2) Solubility: This is also distinguishing property of matter. It is the capability of matter dissolve in solvent. For example, sugar dissolves in water.
3) Expansion: When we heat matters they expand. Expansion in length, expansion in area and expansion in volume are examples of expansion in three dimension.
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